Getting the right type of glass – or the right combination of types – can be critical to the success of your project. This section defines the various kinds of glass, how they’re made, and, their strength and characteristics. It also diagrams construction techniques to show how different glass types can be combined for the desired heat, light and insulation properties.


Annealed Glass

Float glass (also called “flat” glass) that has not been heat-strengthened or tempered is annealed glass. Annealing float glass is the process of controlled cooling to prevent residual stress in the glass and is an inherent operation of the float glass manufacturing process. Annealed glass can be cut, machine drilled, edged, and polished.

Solar Control Glass

Architectural glass is used as a building material. It is mostly typically used as transparent glazing material in the building envelope including windows in the external walls. Glass is also used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature. Glasses on the building provide longer life, easy maintenance and aesthetics including lower internal lighting at day time

High Performance Glass

High performance glass has a solar and low-E coating on the same glass type wherein provides a lower heat gain from the solar radiation and reflect the radiant infrared energy.

High Glass

High selective are designed to reflect specific wavelengths of solar ensuring that while most of the heat is reflected out of the building, the maximum amount of visible building

Reflective Glass

Reflective glass is glass which has been treated with a metallic coating which allows the glass to reflect light and heat. It is not reflective in the sense that it acts as a mirror, but rather in the sense that it reflects radiation rather than absorbing it. This type of glass is used in environmentally friendly construction with the goal of reducing heat gain and loss, making structures much cheaper to heat and cool over the course of the year.

Tinted Glass

Tinted glass products are produced by small additions of metal oxides to the float or rolled glass composition. These small metal oxide additions provide the glass with different colors like bronze, green, blue or gray. The color is homogeneous throughout the thickness. The primary uses for tinted glass are reducing glare from the bright outdoors and reducing the amount of solar energy transmitted through the glass.


Low-emissivity (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin metal layers that are deposited on a window surface to help keep heat on the same side of the glass from which it originated. Depending on the climate, and whether it’s for commercial, residential or automotive use, Guardian has developed a number of different coatings to achieve specific results. The goal is to find the proper balance between capturing and reflecting solar heat.

Low Iron Glass

Low Iron glass provides unprecedented Clarity. It is a specialist glazing solution offering unprecedented levels of clarity and transparency in large glass items. This glass is made using iron free silica and other materials with naturally low iron contents The melting process is tightly controlled to ensure that the product properties remain consistent resulting in a glass panel where iron content of the glass is greatly reduced (hence the name – Low Iron Glass).

From an internal perspective, Low Iron Glass can achieve light transmission values of up to 91% making it the clearest building material available

Insulating Glass

Insulating glass refers to two or more lites of glass sealed around the edges with an Air Spacer between to form a single unit. Commonly referred to as an “IG Unit”, insulating glass is the most effective way to reduce air-to-air heat transfer through the glazing. When used in conjunction with low-e and/or reflective glass coatings, IC units become effective unit to conserve energy and comply with energy codes. The most common architectural insulating glass unit configuration is ¼” glass/ ½” air spacer/ ¼” glass.

As low-e coatings have become better at reducing air-to-air heat transfer, spacer technology has become the of incremental thermal improvements. Typical commercial spacers are composed of Super Spacer filled with desiccant to absorb any residual moisture inside the IG unit, thus reducing potential condensation.

Double Glazed Production Line

Currently, SGI Factory is the only factory in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with dual insulating line. A state of the Art, 3500mm x 2500mm, fully automatic with dual robotic sealant options along with a fully automatic robotized insulating line, 5000mm x 2500mm, from LISEC, Austria, the biggest glass insulating line in the Middle East has been installed. This ensures that customer requirement in term of sealant application will be done with ease when it comes to polyurethane, polysulphide and silicon simultaneously.

Triple Glazing

Energy efficient windows constructed to current standards offer excellent thermal performance in houses. In the case of new super insulated houses, the windows are the weakest point thermally in the building envelope. To overcome the problem, it is advised to install high performance tribple glazed windows with low-E glass and insert gas fill.

Acoustic Insulated Glazing

Acoustic double glazed units are constructed based on the asymmetry of the assembled panes of the glass, flexible bonding of the panes, acoustic lamination and the use of attenuation gases in the space between the panes. Before choosing a suitable unit, the source of noise should be always specified and other influential factors should be identified. SGI possesses sound absorbing glass with an acoustic insulation factor (reduction) ranging between 34dB and 51dB.

Intrusion Safe Glass

Intrusion safe glass stops illicit intruders in their tracks. When struck, the glass will break, but not shatter, preventing the intruder from entering quickly. It is made of Multi laminated glass

One-Way Mirror

A one-way mirror glass is actually a partially transparent mirror. These are widely used for interrogation room allowing the viewing from one side only

Processed Glass

Glass Polishing – Glass is polished with Cerium Oxide and Diamond Embed wheel to remove the rough edges. This will give a glass fine look and better safety.

Beveling – provides glass with a chamfered edge for added decoration. Beveling can be applied to mirrors, door panels, table tops, etc. There are many types of beveling such as flat, pencil, OG, waterfall, bullnose, etc.

Tinted Glass (Heat-Absorbing) Vs Low-E Coated Glass

Low-E coatings reduce the amount of direct solar energy entering the building, before the development of low-e coatings, architects relied on tinted (heat-absorbing glass) or reflective coatings to reduce solar energy transmission. Tinted glass almost always requires heat-treatment to reduce potential thermal stress and breakage and tends to reradiate the absorbed heat, reflective coatings are effective at reducing heat gain but also reduce visible light transmission. Low-e coatings reflect solar energy away from the glazing, often without requiring heat-treatment, and generally have lower visible light reflection.

Common Glass Configuration

The following images depict the most common glass configurations and identify the glass surfaces with numbers showing the glass surfaces counting from exterior to interior.

Spandrel Glass

Spandrel Glass is the area of glass Panels that conceal structural building components such as columns, floors, HVAC systems, electrical wiring, etc. Spandrel Glass is typically located between vision glasses on each floor of a building.

Curtain wall and structurally glazed designs often require the use of spandrel glass to achieve a designer’s vision of the finished project. Spandrel glass applications can be a complementary or contrasting color with respect to the vision glass appearance. Spandrel glass must be heat-treated to avoid thermal stress breakage. SGI has extensive experience with spandrel glass applications and can help architects and building owners achieve the desired appearance, while reducing the risk of thermal stress breakage.

When high light-transmitting or low-reflecting vision glass is specified, achieving an exact spandrel match can be difficult. Daylight condition can have a dramatic effect on the perception of vision to spandrel appearance. For instance, a clear, bright sunny day produces highly reflective viewing conditions and may provide a good vision to spandrel glass match. A gray cloudy day may allow more visual transmission from the exterior and produce more contrast between the vision and spandrel glass. SGI recommends full size, outdoor mock-ups be prepared and approved in order to confirm the most desirable spandrel option for a specific project.

Energy Conservation and Coated Glass

The use of coated glass and insulating glass units can have a significant impact on the energy consumption of commercial buildings. A reduction in HVAC system cooling capacity reduces the initial investment and annual savings from reduced energy consumption for heating and cooling requirements provides a return on glazing investment year after year. The energy savings from high-performance coated glass can be several hundred thousand dollars for a typical six-story building, and the payback can be as little as two years.

SGI Industries has invested substantial resources over the years in search of improved solar heat gain and U-values of commercial coated glass products. The SGI product line is one of the results of the investment – a wide range of performance characteristics to meet varying local and regional energy codes as well as some of the highest performing most energy-efficient coatings available today.

Warm-Edge Spacer

Warm-edge spacer technology is another option for improving the thermal properties, reducing condensation and reducing u-values in IG units. There are a number of warm-edge spacer designs available, all of which thermally break the metal-to-glass contact point to some degree, While offering varying levels of Structural integrity that may or may Not be suitable for commercial Applications. Warm-edge spacers Can significantly reduce heat Conduction when compared with Conventional metal spacers